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      1885~1910 1910~1945 1945~1978 1978~
      The Japanese Occupation of Korea and the Hospital Affiliated with the Medical School of Gyeongseong Imperial University and the Hospital Affiliated with Gyeongseong Medical College

           Following the opening of the country's doors to the world in 1876, King (later Emperor) Gojong (1852-1919; r. 1863-1907) and the government of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) established and set out to implement a modernization project on a national scale. Here, they focused also on the modernization of medicine. Consequently, through an inspection party dispatched to Japan in 1881, they explored Western medicine and, through the Hanseong Sunbo, the government bulletin, in 1884, informed the people of the need for Western medical education. When Robert S. Maclay, an American Methodist missionary, entered Korea and suggested the foundation of a Western-style hospital, he was granted royal permission. Then, in 1884, Gapsin Coup was executed. In the course of events, Horace N. Allen, an American physician-missionary, saved the life of Yeong-ik Min, a high-ranking government official who had been stabbed by an assassin. The even served as a catalyst to the opening of a Western-style national hospital.

           Finally, in April 1885, King Gojong and the Joseon government established Jejung Hospital ("House of Universal Helpfulness") under the Board for General Control of Diplomatic and Commercial Matters (equivalent of the present-day Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MOFAT)). They provided the land, buildings, facilities, administrative workers, and operating expenses and employed American physicians to examine and treat patients. Of course, the overall management and supervision of Jejung Hospital were the province of government officials. Consequently, missionaries at the time likewise alluded to Jejung Hospital in diverse reports as the "government hospital." In the end, Jejung Hospital became the first Western-style national hospital to be established and operated by the Joseon government in Korea.

           King Gojong and the Joseon government assigned two special missions to Jejung Hospital, which was the national hospital. The first consisted of teaching Western medicine to intelligent young men so that they would become competent medical specialists. The second consisted of treating impoverished patients free of charge. Already at the time of Jejung Hospital, the advancement of medicine and public medical service were established as the social responsibility of the national hospital.

           Even after the establishment of the Empire of Korea in 1897, the Korean government continued to maintain the basic goals of the nation's public health and medical service policy as the advancement of medicine and the provision of public medical service. In 1899, it founded Gyeongseong Medical School (predecessor of the present-day SNU College of Medicine), a public institution, to foster physicians, and opened Gwangje Hospital ("House of Extended Helpfulness") as the new national hospital, devoting its energy to the examination and treatment of indigent patients and the spread of inoculation.

           In 1907, the Empire of Korea established Daehan Hospital by combining Gyeongseong Medical School, its affiliated hospital, Gwangje Hospital, and the Korean Red Cross Hospital, which was under the royal household. A comprehensive medical institution providing education, research, examination, and treatment, Daehan Hospital also played the role of a public medical institution. Furthermore, it even had the authority to oversee the country's medical service and public health projects. With the annexation of the Empire of Korea by Japan in 1910, the project to modernize medicine in Korea was frustrated for the time being. Nevertheless, the experience of modernizing medicine that continued from Jejung Hospital to Daehan Hospital had a considerable effect on the history of medical service in Korea.

      Apr. 14 Established Gwanghyewon, a public hospital. (The first modern public hospital of Western medicine in Korea, originally located where the Constitutional Court stands today.)
      Sept. 26 Transferred the management rights of Jejungwon to the missionary of the American Presbyterian Church.
      Mar. 24 Announced the opening of a Medical School. (The first education institution, a college of modern medicine which is the predecessor of Seoul national University College of Medicine, originally located at Hong-Jip Kim's mansion in today's Kwanhoon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul.)
      Apr. 26 Established The Hospital. (Originally located at Sakanwon across from Youngchu Gate of Kyungbok Palace today.)
      Jun. 30 Changed the name of The Hospital to Bosiwon.
      Jul. 7 Bosiwon renamed Gwangjewon. (Moved the location to Jae-dong.)
      Jun. 11 The Medical School opened an Affiliated Hospital of The Medical School. (Located at Hoon-dong.)
      Jan. 9

      The first graduates (19 students) of the Medical School received their diplomas.

      Apr. 10 An agreement for the return of Jejungwon. The government redeemed Jejungwon.
      Aug. The groundbreaking ceremony of Daehan Hospital took place.
      Mar. 10

      The Affiliated Hospital of The Medical School, Gwangjewon and Daehan Red Cross Hospital were combined and Daehan Hospital was newly established. Departments of Education, Medical Examination and Hygiene were created.

      Mar. 15 Announced the opening of Daehan Hospital.
      Oct. 25

      Opening Ceremony of Daehan Hospital.

      [Royal Letter on the Opening of Daehan Hospital]

       royal letter on the opening of daehan hospital
      Mar. 15 Announced the opening of Daehan Hospital.
      Feb. 1 Changed the name of Daehan Hospital's Department of Medical Education to the Training School of Medicine.

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